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Georgia Journal of Science

Article Title

COUNTERFACTUAL HISTORIES OCCUR IN CLASSICAL PHYSICS

Abstract

In a previous discussion [1], arguments were given to support the view that “counterfactual histories” exist and their occurrence is consistent with the multi-universe interpretation of quantum mechanics. Further, within this framework, it was demonstrated that for a given system, its history is unique, while its future evolution is uncertain. The purpose of the current work is to show that these features also occur in systems modeled by classical physical theories. A major consequence of either the classical or quantum formalisms is that different counterfactual histories do not communicate or interact. Several explicit examples of this phenomenon will be given. In general, counterfactual histories will exist for a system if it can be modeled by a physical theory which allows multi-outcomes in the evolution of any of its sub-systems.

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