EFFECTS OF TYPE 1 DIABETES ON THE COMPOSITION OF THE ORAL AND GUT MICROBIOMES**
The prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been globally increasing at rates from 3 to 5 percent a year. Recent studies suggest an alteration in the human gut and oral microbiomes leading to the immune system attacking insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This alteration comes from a decrease in quantity and diversity of gut bacteria, and an increase in oral bacteria responsible for increases in cavities and periodontal disease. Understanding how fluctuations in the human microbiome influence pathogenesis of T1D would allow researchers to find treatments that revert patients to a healthy microbiome. A lack of research exists in looking at differences in the oral and gut microbiome in type 1 diabetics, usually only dealing with diabetics before and just after diagnosis. This study aims to compare the oral and gut microbiomes of healthy individuals and individuals with T1D in participants from ages 18-23, analyzing whether differences persist into early adulthood. Ten healthy and ten T1D volunteer students from Young Harris College were selected. Oral microbiomes taken from saliva were cultivated on mitis salivarius agar and blood agar, to identify bacterial species associated with increased cavities and periodontal disease like Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus. Using protocols based on SmartGut by uBiome, a DNA sequencing company, three healthy and three T1D subjects will submit a stool sample to obtain their gut microbiome composition. Test results will consist of a diversity score and presence of microorganisms associated with various diseases. Research suggests increased levels of Bacteroides and decreased levels of Firmicutes in type 1 diabetics. Therefore, our study will specifically compare the ratio of Bacteroides and Firmicutes in healthy and T1D individuals.
YHC Biology Department, YHC Honors College
Tonnesen*, Meghan N. and Sieg, R. Drew
"EFFECTS OF TYPE 1 DIABETES ON THE COMPOSITION OF THE ORAL AND GUT MICROBIOMES**,"
Georgia Journal of Science, Vol. 76, No. 1, Article 58.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.gaacademy.org/gjs/vol76/iss1/58