Ball lightning is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the atmosphere. However due to its brevity and rarity, its occurrence is not well understood. Three models based on electromagnetic properties are discussed in this paper to explain the rare phenomenon of ball lightning. The first model incorporates the idea of electron bunching, electrons moving with different velocities. This creates a plasma bubble by recombining electrons with ionized gas to form plasma that is stabilized by a standing microwave. The second model explains the idea of streamers being tangled and linked in a magnetic field while stabilized by the conservation of helicity. The third model is a lab created skyrmion that when evaluated exhibits qualities similar to ball lightning.
Amir Abdallah; Kyle Castleberry; Anyauna Spikes; Khadeem Coumarbatch; Joshua Ballard-Myer; Nick Palmer; and Mahabaduge, Hasitha
"A Review of Ball Lightning Models,"
Georgia Journal of Science, Vol. 77, No. 2, Article 18.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.gaacademy.org/gjs/vol77/iss2/18