Georgia Journal of Science


Atmospheric carbon dioxide is rising at an accelerated rated due to increased anthropogenic activities. Metals have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed combined exposure of both pollutants to sensitive, calcifying organisms in freshwater habitats. This study examined copper accumulation (over 7 d) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (over 2 d), in the freshwater common pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, after exposure to ambient and increased (2000 µatm) CO2 and copper (control, 5, and 20 µg/L). Results demonstrated increased copper accumulation in soft tissue of snails exposed to copper; however, exposure to increased CO2 did not increase the magnitude of copper accumulation. After 2 d, increased glutathione peroxidase activity was observed in snails exposed to increased CO2 or copper individually; however, synergistic effects from exposure to both parameters were not observed. A greater response in glutathione peroxidase activity was observed in elevated CO2-exposed snails as compared to those exposed to copper. This study provides new insight into exposure to multiple contaminants, which elicit a similar compensatory response in L. stagnalis